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A model-free Reinforcement learning technique. Given states $$S$$ and actions $$A$$, the payoff $$Q$$ is iteratively updated. From wikipedia:

$$Q_{t+1}(s_{t},a_{t}) = \underbrace{Q_t(s_t,a_t)}_{\rm old~value} + \underbrace{\alpha_t(s_t,a_t)}_{\rm learning~rate} \cdot \left( \overbrace{\underbrace{R_{t+1}}_{\rm reward} + \underbrace{\gamma}_{\rm discount~factor} \underbrace{\max_{a}Q_t(s_{t+1}, a)}_{\rm estimate~of~optimal~future~value}}^{\rm learned~value} - \underbrace{Q_t(s_t,a_t)}_{\rm old~value} \right)$$